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Ritual Purification
  Al-Iqna' of Ibn al-Mundhir : Section Dealing With Ritual Purity
Author: The Imaam, Abu Bakr Muhammad bin Ibraaheem bin al
Article ID : IBD020001  [33824]  
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Abu Bakr (ibn al-Mundhir) said:

  • One. Both the one one who is in a state of major impurity and minor impurity can perform dry ablution in the case that no water is to be found.
  • Two. The one who is sick and in a state of major impurity can perform dry ablution if he fears that the coldness of the water would harm him were he to bathe in it. This applies regardless of whether he is travelling or not.
  • Three. None of these people have to repeat their prayers if later they find water, regardless of whether they find it within the time of the current prayer or after it.
  • Four. Therefore the one who is allowed to perform dry ablution should perform it at the beginning of the period for the prayer and pray. He does not have to repeat the prayer if he later finds water.
  • Five. The best opinion that has been voiced concerning looking for water is that the seeker look to his right and left, in front of him and behind him and if he finds water or indications to a water source then he should perform ritual ablution otherwise he can perform dry ablution.
  • Six. The one who intends to perform dry ablution should find clean earth and strike both his hands upon it once, then he should raise them and wipe his face and hands.
  • Seven. It is not permissible to perform dry ablution except with clean earth due to his (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) saying, "the earth has been made clean and purifying for me as well as a Mosque." {27}
  • Eight. With one dry ablution he can perform all of the obligatory prayers and other prayers [in the case that water is not found].
  • Nine. It is better and safer if he were to perform dry ablution for each obligatory prayer.
  • Ten. He can perform dry ablution in a short or long journey.
  • Eleven. It is not upon him to buy water through spending more than he can afford.
  • Twelve. If he fears thirst then he should keep the water he has for drinking, perform dry ablution and he does not have to repeat the prayer.
  • Thirteen. The one who does not have any water can have sexual intercourse then perform dry ablution and then pray. This is valid.
  • Fourteen. One should perform dry ablution for optional prayers and the prostrations of the Qur`aan [in the case that no water is found].
  • Fifteen. If one performs dry ablution, enters the prayer and then sees water, he should not leave the prayer, rather he should complete it.
  • Sixteen. It is not permissible to perform dry ablution without intention.
  • Seventeen. Every one who has performed dry ablution must take a ritual bath if he was in a state of major impurity or perform ritual ablution if he was in a state of minor impurity when they find water in order to pray any ensuing prayer.
  • Eighteen. The menstruating women, when she becomes free of her menstrual cycle, and the woman undergoing post-natal bleeding, when she becomes pure, can do all that we have mentioned above.
  • Nineteen. It is permissible for one who has performed dry ablution to lead those who have performed ritual ablution.


{26} Bukhaaree [Eng. Trans.], Muslim [Eng. Trans.], Abu Daawood [Eng. Trans.], an-Nasaa`ee [1/169], ibn Maajah [no. 569], al-Bayhaqee [1/209], ibn Khuzaymah [no. 268, 269], ibn Hibbaan [no. 1299], at-Tayaalisee [no. 638], Ahmaad [2/265, 320], Abu Awaanah [1/305] and ibn Abee Shaybah [1/159]
{27} Muslim [Eng. Trans.] and ad-Daarimee [no. 1396]. The hadeeth has also been reported by al-Bukhaaree [Eng. Trans.] with the wording, "the earth has been made purifying for me as well as a Mosque."

CHAPTER ELEVEN : The Description of the Ritual Bath from a State of Major Impurity

12. Abu Bakr narrated to us; Muhammad bin Abdul-Wahhaab narrated to us; Ja`far bin `Awn informed us; Hishaam bin `Urwah informed us; from his father that Aa`ishah (RA) said:

"The Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) commenced by washing his hands, then he performed ritual ablution as he would for the prayer. Then he would take handfuls of water and wet his hair to its roots until he felt that the whole skin of the head had become wet. Then he poured three handfuls of water over his head and bathed." {28}

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