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Ritual Purification
  Al-Iqna' of Ibn al-Mundhir : Section Dealing With Ritual Purity
Author: The Imaam, Abu Bakr Muhammad bin Ibraaheem bin al
Article ID : IBD020001  


THE CHAIN OF NARRATION OF THE BOOK

I read under Abu Abdullaah Muhammad bin Yamn al-Maraadee who said; I read under Abu Abdullaah Muhammad bin Ibraaheem al-Balkhee, in Mecca in the Holy Mosque, who said; Abu Bakr Muhammad bin Ibraaheem bin al-Mundhir said in Mecca in the month of Muharram in the year 315H:

THE BOOK OF RITUAL ABLUTION (WUDU`)

1. Ar-Rabee` bin Sulaymaan narrated to us; ibn Wahb narrated to us; Sulaymaan bin Bilaal informed me; Katheer bin Zayd informed me; from al-Waleed bin Rabaah; from Abu Hurayrah (RA) that the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) said,

"Allaah does not accept a prayer without purity and neither charity from ill-gotten means." {1}

NOTES

{1} Ibn Khuzaimah [1/8 no. 9] and Abu Awaanah [1/235]. The hadeeth has a witness in the hadeeth of ibn Umar (RA) reported by Muslim [Eng. Trans.], at-Tirmidhee [1/5 no. 1], ibn Maajah [1/100 no. 272], al-Bayhaqee [1/42], ibn Khuzaymah [1/8], Ahmad [2/20, 51, 57, 73], Abu Awaanah [1/235], ibn Abee Shaybah [1/4], Abu Nu`aym in 'al-Hilya' [6/176], and Abu Ahmad al-Haakim in 'Shi`aar Ashaab al-Hadeeth' [pg. 48]

CHAPTER ONE : Mention of the Impurities (Ahdaath) that Impair the State of Purity and Obligate Ritual Ablution


2. Abu Bakr narrated to us; Alee bin al-Hasan narrated to us; Abdullaah bin al-Waleed al-`Adnee narrated to us; from Sufyaan; from `Aasim; from Zirr bin Habeesh who said; I went to Safwaan bin `Asaal to ask him about wiping [over the socks for ritual ablution] to which he replied:

"The Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) used to order us not to remove our leather socks (khuffs) for three days and nights [when on a journey] except in the case of major impurity (janaabah). However [one could perform ritual ablution including wiping over the socks due to] sleeping, excreting or urinating." {2}

Abu Bakr [ibn al-Mundhir] said: The matters that obligate ritual ablution are

  • One. The emission of excrement or wind from the rear.
  • Two. The emission of urine from the private part of the man and of the woman.
  • Three. Al-Madhee (the clear substance that comes out of the penis before the ejaculation of sperm).
  • Four. Sleep, even if it be a little, regardless of what posture the person is in. {3}
  • Five. The man touching his wife. {4}
  • Six. Eating camel meat. {5}
  • Seven. The loss of sanity, regardless of how one lost it - be it through insanity or unconciousness.

Everything that comes out of the penis or vagina or bottom constitutes impurity, impairs the state of purity and obligates ritual ablution.

The certainty of being in a state of purity is not removed by having a doubt that one may have done something breaking the state of purity.

NOTES

{2} At-Tirmidhee [no. 96], an-Nasaa`ee [1/83], ibn Maajah [no. 479], al-Bayhaqee [1/114], ad-Daaruqutnee [1/197], ibn Hibbaan [no. 1310], Ahmad [4/139], at-Tayaalisee [no. 1166], Abdur-Razzaaq [no. 793, 795], ibn Abee Shaybah [1/177] and others.
All of them, excepting ibn Maajah, have the additional wording "when on a journey."
{3} However some of the scholars hold that sleeping in a firm sitting position does not break the state of ablution. They quote as a proof for this the saheeh hadeeth of Abu Daawood [Eng. Trans. 1/49 no. 200] amongst others from Anas (RA) that the Companions of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) used to wait for the night prayer [until they dozed], their heads nodding up and down. Then they offered the prayer without performing ablution." - An-Nawawee declared this to be the most authentic position of the Shaafi`ee madh-hab in 'Majmu`' [2/16]
-{Trans.}
{4} However the majority of the scholars outside of the Shaafi`ee madh-hab and many of the Shaafi`ee scholars hold that a man touching his wife does not obligate the ritual ablution. This is due to a number of evidences, from amongst them the hadeeth of Aa`ishah (RA) that "the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) kissed some of his wives and then went to perform the prayer without performing ritual ablution." Reported by Abu Daawood [Eng. Trans. 1/43 no. 179] and others.
There is a great deal of difference concerning the authenticity of this hadeeth, however the strongest opinion seems to be that it is authentic. Refer to the extremely detailed analysis of this hadeeth in Mashur Hasan Salmaan, tahqeeq upon 'al-Khilaafiyyaat' of al-Bayhaqee [2/164-170].
Ibn Rushd quotes from ibn Abdul Barr concerning the above hadeeth, "the hadeeth has also been reported via the route of Ma`bad bin Nabaatah. Ash-Shaafi`ee said: if it is authentic then I do not hold that ritual ablution [is obligatory] from kissing or touching." - 'Bidaayatul Mujtahid' [1/29-30]
Ibn Hajr quotes from ash-Shaafi`ee that he said, "It is reported via Ma`bad bin Nabaatah from Muhammad bin `Amr bin `Ataa from Aa`ishah from the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) that he used to kiss [them] and not perform ablution. I do not know the condition of Ma`bad. If he is trustworthy and precise then the proof lies with the saying of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) ." - 'Talkhees al-Habeer' [pg. 44]
An-Nawawee says in 'Majmu`' [2/34], "Our madh-hab is that the skin of a man meeting the skin of an ajnabee woman breaks the [state of ablution] regardless of whether it was with passion or otherwise."
The famous stance of the Hanbalee madh-hab is that if a man touches a woman with passion then his state of ablution is broken, otherwise it is not." - 'Al-Mughnee' [1/192].
This stance is also held by the Maalikees. - 'Al-Mudawwanah' [1/13].
The Hanafee stance is that a man touching a woman does not break the state of ablution. - 'Haashiyah ibn Aabideen' [1/147]
Shaykh Mashur determines that the strongest opinion is that a man touching a woman does not break the state of ablution. - tahqeeq to 'al-Khilaafiyyaat' [2/216-219]
- {Trans.}
{5} Abu Daawood [1/44 no. 184] narrates from Baraa` bin Aazib (RA) that the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) was asked about performing ablution after eating the flesh of the camel. He replied, 'perform ablution after eating it.' He was asked about performing ablution after eating mutton. He replied, 'do not perform ablution after eating it.' He was asked about performing prayer in the resting-places of camels. He replied, 'do not offer prayers in these places, they are the places of Shaytaan.' He was asked about performing prayers in sheepfolds. He replied, 'you may offer prayers there, they are the places of blessings.'
-{Trans}

CHAPTER TWO : Mention of What Obligates a Ritual Bath (Ghusl)

3. Ar-Rabee` narrated to us; ash-Shaafi`ee informed us; Maalik bin Hishaam informed us; from Hishaam; from his father; from Zaynab bint Abee Salamah; from Umm Salamah who said:

"Umm Sulaym, the wife of Abu Talhah, went to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) and said, 'O Messenger of Allaah! Allaah is not embarrased of the truth, does a woman need to have a ritual bath when she has a wet dream?' He replied, 'yes, in the case that she sees liquid.'" {6}

Abu Bakr (ibn al-Mundhir) said: The matters that obligate a ritual bath are:

  • One. The emission of thick liquid from the penis or vagina, be it in a state of wakefulness or sleep, be it due to sexual intercourse or not.
  • Two. The meeting of the two sexual organs.
  • Three. The menstruating woman and the woman undergoing post-natal bleeding when they become free of it.
  • Four. The disbeliever when he becomes a Muslim.
  • Five. Washing the dead Muslim is obligatory upon the one who knows of his death.

NOTES

{6} Bukhaaree [Eng. Trans.], Muslim [Eng. Trans.], at-Tirmidhee [no. 122], ibn Maajah [no. 600], al-Bayhaqee [1/167], Ahmad [7/292, 302, 306, 307], Maalik [Eng. Trans.], Abdur-Razzaaq [no. 1094] and ibn Abee Shaybah [1/80]

CHAPTER THREE : Mention of Vessels [Used for Ritual Ablution]

4. Abu Maysarah narrated to us; Abdul-A`laa and Wahb bin Baqiyyah narrated to us; Khaalid narrated to us; from Suhayl; from his father; from Abu Hurayrah (RA) that

"The Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) ordered us to cover the vessels [used for storing ablution water] and to tighten the noose of water-skins." {7}

Abu Bakr (ibn al-Mundhir) said:

  • One. It is recommended (mustahabb) to cover the vessels at night that are used for performing ritual ablution.
  • Two. It is permissible to perform ritual ablution from any vessel with the exception of the gold and silver ones. We dislike that ritual ablution be performed from these, however [if it is done] the ablution is still valid.

NOTES

{7} Ibn Maajah [no. 3411], ad-Daarimee [no. 2138], ibn Khuzaymah [no. 128] and Ahmad [2/367] with the wording, "the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) ordered us to cover the water employed for ritual ablution and to tighten the noose of water-skins."
The hadeeth has a witness in the hadeeth of Jaabir reported by Muslim [Eng. Trans.], ibn Maajah [no. 360, 3411], ibn Khuzaymah [no.'s 131-133], Ahmad [3/301, 355, 386, 388] and Maalik [Eng. Trans.]

CHAPTER FOUR : The Mannerisms of Performing Ritual Ablution

5. Abu Bakr narrated to us; Bikaar bin Qutaybah narrated to us; Safwaan bin `Eesaa narrated to us; Muhammad bin al-Ajlaan narrated to us; al-Qa`qaa` bin Hakeem informed us; from Abu Saalih; from Abu Hurayrah (RA) that the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) said.

"Indeed I am like a father to you all. When one of you goes to the toilet then do not face the Qiblah or turn your back to it. When you then clean yourself, do not use your right hand." He used to command us to employ three stones [for cleaning] and forbid us from using dung or bones [for cleaning]. {8}

Abu Bakr (ibn al-Mundhir) said:

  • One. It is from the Sunnah for the one who desires to excrete to go far away from the people. {9}
  • Two. It is a Sunnah for him to conceal himself [from public view]. {10}
  • Three. He can urinate close-by to people.
  • Four. Upon entering the toilet he should say, "O Allaah! I take refuge with you from the male and female jinns." {11}
  • Five. He should not face the Qiblah or turn his back to it in the open desert. There is no harm if this is done in houses.
  • Six. He should not excrete in the roads or the places of gathering or in the courtyards of houses.
  • Seven. He should not touch his penis with his right hand unless his left hand is in pain and hence forcing him to touch it with his right.
  • Eight. It is permissible to urinate while standing or sitting.
  • Nine. Restraint from mentioning the Name of Allaah while excreting or urinating is good.
  • Ten. The one who is in this condition should not reply to the greeting (salaam).
  • Eleven. It is recommended that one removes a ring that has [engraved on it] the name of Allaah before entering the toilet.

NOTES

{8} Abu Daawood [Eng. Trans. 1/2 no. 8], an-Nasaa`ee [1/38], ibn Maajah [no. 313], ad-Daarimee [no. 680], al-Bayhaqee [1/91, 1/102, 1/112], ibn Hibbaan in 'Mawaarid adh-Dham`aan' [no. 128], Abu Awaanah [1/200], al-Humaydee [no. 988], ash-Shaafi`ee in 'al-Umm' [1/22] and al-Baghawee [no. 173]
{9} Abu Daawood [Eng. Trans. 1/1 no. 2] reports from Mugheerah bin Shu`bah (RA) that "when the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) went to the toilet he went far away from the people."
{10} Abu Daawood [Eng. Trans. 1/8 no. 35] reports from Abu Hurayrah (RA) that the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) said, "when one of you goes to the toilet then let him conceal himself. If he does not find any way to do this except by making a heap of sand [then let him do so] and sit with his back to it for the Shaytaan makes sport with the sitting places of the Children of Aadam. Whosoever does this has done well but whosoever does not then there is no harm incurred."
{11} At-Tirmidhee [no. 5]

CHAPTER FIVE : Mention of Cleaning the Private Parts (Istinjaa`)

6. Abu Bakr narrated to us; al-Hasan bin Alee narrated to us; ibn Numayr narrated to us; from al-A`mash; from Ibraaheem; from Abdur-Rahmaan bin Yazeed; from Salmaan who said

"The polytheists said, 'indeed your Prophet teaches you [in such detail] that he even teaches you about excretion!' [Salmaan] said, 'for sure, he forbade us from cleaning the private parts with dung or bone and he said: it does not suffice any of you to use less than three stones.'" {12}

  • One. It is sufficient to use three stones in the case that the impurity is removed. It is not valid to use less than three stones.
  • Two. If the impurity is not removed by using three stones then more should be employed until the impurity is removed. {13}
  • Three. Any emission outside urine and excretion requires water to cleanse it [with the exception of wind].
  • Four. Cleaning oneself after urinating is done in the same way as cleaning oneself after excreting [with three or more stones].
  • Five. It is valid to clean the private parts by using clods of dry and solid earth, wood, cloth, papyrus, pieces of moulded clay and other such things.
  • Six. The private parts are not to be cleaned using dung.
  • Seven. They are not to be cleaned using something that has already been employed to clean unless it is first purified.
  • Eight. The private parts are not to be cleaned using bones or anything impure. {14}
  • Nine. It is recommended to employ water to clean the private parts.
  • Ten. If both stones and water are used then this is good. {15}
  • Eleven. It is recommended to wipe ones hand with earth or anything that would take its place and then wash the hand after cleaning the private parts. {16}
  • Twelve. When he leaves the toilet he should say, "Asking your forgiveness." {17}

NOTES

{12} Muslim [Eng. Trans.], Abu Daawood [Eng. Trans. 1/2 no. 7], at-Tirmidhee [no. 16], ibn Maajah [no. 316], ad-Daaruqutnee [1/54], al-Bayhaqee [1/91, 1/102], ibn Khuzaymah [no. 74], Ahmad [5/437], at-Tayaalisee [no. 654], Abu Awaanah [2/217] and ibn al-Jaarood [no. 29]
{13} Preferably an odd number due to the hadeeth reported by Abu Daawood [Eng. Trans. 1/8 no. 35], "whosoever uses stones to clean himself then let him use an odd number. Whosoever does this has done well but whosever does not has incurred no blame." This hadeeth is taken to refer to employing stones in excess of three in order to reconcile it with the above hadeeth. 'Tuhfatul Ahwadhee' [1/67], 'Majmu`' [2/120]
However some of the scholars such as al-Albaanee do not consider this hadeeth to be authentic. - {Trans.}
{14} At-Tirmidhee [no. 18] reports from Abdullaah bin Mas`ud (RA) that the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) said, "do not clean your private parts using dung or bones for they are the provisions for your brothers amongst the Jinn." Other narrations show that the bones are food for the Jinn and the dung is food for their riding beasts. - 'Tuhfatul Ahwadhee' [1/75]
-{Trans}
{15} Al-Ainee said, "the opinion of the majority of the Salaf and later generations, that which those possessing the ability to give legal ruling are agreed upon in all of the various lands, is that the best course is to combine between [employing both] water and stones. First the stones are used and then the water. In this way the amount of impurity touched by the hand is minimised and the highest level of cleanliness is achieved. If however one wishes to use one of the two then the use of water is better because it removes the impurity as well as its smell. Stones remove only the impurity but it is still valid to use only them and the prayer would still be valid." - 'Tuhfatul Ahwadhee' [1/78]
- {Trans}
{16} Abu Daawood [Eng. Trans. 1/11 no. 45] reports from Abu Hurayrah (RA) that "when the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) went to the privy, I took water to him in a small vessel or skin and he cleansed himself and then wiped his hand on the ground. I then took to him another vessel and he performed ablution."
{17} At-Tirmidhee [no. 5]

CHAPTER SIX : The Tooth Stick (Siwaak)

7. Abu Bakr narrated to us; Alee bin al-Hasan narrated to us; Ya`laa narrated to us; Mas`ar narrated to us; from al-Miqdaam bin Shurayh; from his father who said:

"I asked Aa`ishah: what did the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) use to begin with when he entered his house? She replied: [he used to commence] with employing the Tooth Stick." {18}

  • One. If one desires to perform ritual ablution then he should commence with the tooth stick because the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) used to do so when he entered his house.
  • Two. One should employ the tooth stick whenever one performs ritual ablution and when one wakes for the night prayer. {19}

NOTES

{18} Muslim [Eng. Trans.], Abu Daawood [Eng. Trans.], an-Nasaa`ee [1/13], ibn Maajah [no. 290], al-Bayhaqee [1/34], ibn Hibbaan [no. 1060], Ahmad [6/41, 42, 110, 182, 188, 192, 237], Abu Awaanah [1/192], al-Baghawee [no. 201] and ibn Abee Shaybah [1/168]
{19} Ibn Maajah [no. 288] reports that the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) said, "Use the siwaak for indeed it purifies the mouth and is pleasing to the Lord. Each time Jibreel has come to me he has enjoined me to employ the siwaak to the point that I feared that it would become obligatory upon my nation and me. If I did not fear that it would become difficult for my nation I would have obligated its use upon them and indeed I employ the siwaak to the point that I fear that my front teeth would be uprooted."
- {Trans}

CHAPTER SEVEN : Mention [of the Types] of Water

8. Alee bin al-Hasan narrated to us; Abdullaah bin al-Waleed narrated to us; from Sufyaan bin Sammaak; from `Ikrimah; from ibn Abbaas (RA) that:

One of the wives of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) had a bath after being in the state of major impurity. Then the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) came to have a bath from the water left over. She said, "I have bathed from it." He said, "nothing impurifies water." {20}

[Abu Bakr (ibn al-Mundhir said):]

  • One. All water is pure and permissible to employ for ritual ablution or ritual bath. This applies unless the water is mixed with an impurity that changes [one of its three qualities of] taste, colour or smell.
  • Two. The above applies equally to fresh water, seawater and a small or large quantity of water.
  • Three. It is not permissible to perform ritual ablution from any type of drinks [aside from water], food, milk, date juice, or water squeezed from plants. Neither is it permissible to perform ritual ablution from water that has food or drinks mixed with it to such an extent that it is no longer correct to apply the term water to it. For example: honey, milk or pickle.
  • Four. There is no set limit to the amount of water one may use save that which would suffice.
  • Five. Performing ritual ablution from the left over water of the one who had major impurity, the woman who was menstruating, or a Christian [for example] is permissible.
  • Six.
  • Seven. If a dog licks a vessel then it should be washed seven times, one of those times employing earth. {21}

NOTES

{20} Al-Bayhaqee [1/188], al-Haakim [1/159] who authenticated it and adh-Dhahabee agreed. Ibn Khuzaymah [no. 109], Ahmad [1/235, 284, 308] and ibn Jaarood [no. 48, 49].
Abu Daawood [Eng. Trans. 1/17 no. 68], at-Tirmidhee [no.65], ibn Maajah [no. 370] and ibn Abee Shaybah [1/33] with the wording, "water is not defiled."
{21} Preferably one should employ earth the first time due to the hadeeth reported by Muslim [Eng. Trans. 1/167 no. 549] from Abu Hurayrah (RA) that the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) said, "the purification of the utensil belonging to any of you, after it is licked by a dog lies in washing it seven times using earth for the first time." - 'Majmu`' [2/600].
- {Trans}

CHAPTER EIGHT : The Method of Performing Ritual Ablution

9. Ishaaq bin Ibraaheem nararted to us; Abdur-Razzaaq informed us; Mu`mar informed us; from Zuhree; from `Ataa bin Yazeed al-Laythee; from Humraan bin Abaan [the servant of Uthmaan (RA)] who said:

I saw Uthmaan bin `Affaan performing ritual ablution. He poured water over his hands, washing them three times. Then he rinsed his mouth and snuffed his nose [by putting water in it and then blowing it out]. Then he washed his right arm to his elbow three times and did the same for the left. Then he wiped his head, then he washed his right foot and did the same with his left. Then he said, "I saw the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) performing ritual ablution in the way that I have just done, then he (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) said, 'whosoever performs ritual ablution as I have done, proceeding to pray two rak`ahs in which he thinks of nothing else save the prayer shall have his previous sins forgiven.'" {22}

Abu Bakr (ibn al-Mundhir said):

  • One. When you wish to perform ritual ablution then washing [each body part] three times is more beloved to me. It is sufficient to wash [each body part] once. There is no sin incurred if one does not perform the washing three times.
  • Two. Commence by saying, "With the Name of Allaah" and have the intention of purifying yourself.
  • Three. Wash your hands three times.
  • Four. Then rinse your mouth three times and snuff your nose your nose three times. If you wish you can [rinse and snuff one after the other] with one handful of water or you can use a separate handful for each.
  • Five. Then wash your face three times commencing with the uppermost part. The definition of the face that requires washing is from the roots of the hair [where the head starts] to the ears, the jawbone and the chin. Let the water flow over the outside of the beard and wipe the inner corners of your eyes.
  • Six. Then wash your right arm from the tips of your fingers to the elbow three times and do the same with the left arm.
  • Seven. Then take a handful of water with your right hand and wipe your left hand with the right until the water has spilled and wipe your head. Begin with the front of your head and wipe until your reach the end of your hair on your neck and then [move your hand] back to the front of your head.
  • Eight. Wipe the outside and inside of your ears. Insert your forefingers into your ears and use your thumbs to wipe the outside of the ear.
  • Nine. Finally wash your right foot to your ankle and then your left in the same way.

NOTES

{22} Bukhaaree [Eng. Trans. 1/113 no. 161, 1/115 no. 165], Muslim [Eng. Trans.1/149 no. 436], an-Nasaa`ee [1/64], Abu Daawood [Eng. Trans. 1/28 no. 106] all with the wording "then he washed his right foot up to the ankle three times and did the same with his left."

CHAPTER NINE : Wiping over the Leather Socks

10. Alee bin al-Hasan narrated to us; Abdullaah bin al-Waleed narrated to us; from Sufyaan; from his father [Sa`eed bin Masrooq ath-Thawree]; from at-Taimee [Ibraaheem bin Yazeed bin Shareek]; from `Amr bin Maymoon al-Awdee; from Abu Abdullaah al-Jadalee; from Khuzaymah bin Thaabit (RA) who said:

"The Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) appointed three days and three nights [to be the period] for wiping over the leather socks for the traveller and one day and one night for the resident." If the questioner had persisted in his questioning then the period would have been made five [days and nights for the traveller]. {23}

Abu Bakr (ibn al-Mundhir) said:

  • One. Wiping over any type of leather sock is permissible due to the hadeeth being authentic to the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) that he ordered [the Companions] to wipe over them for three days and nights when on a journey and one day and night when resident.
  • Two. The wiping is done on the upper surface of the socks passing the fingers over them.
  • Three. One can also wipe over the turban due to this being authentically reported from the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) {24} and from Abu Bakr (RA) and Umar (RA). {25}

NOTES

{23} Bayhaqee [1/277], Ibn Hibbaan [no. 1319], at-Tahaawee [1/81], Abdur-Razzaaq [no. 203] and ibn Abee Shaybah [1/177].
The hadeeth has also been reported by Abu Daawood [Eng. Trans. 1/38 no. 157], at-Tirmidhee [no. 95] and ibn al-Jaarood [no. 86] without the words, "If the questioner had persisted in his questioning then the period would have been made five [days and nights for the traveller]." At-Tirmidhee said that the hadeeth was hasan saheeh
{24} Bukhaaree [Eng. Trans. 1/136 no. 204], ad-Daarimee [no. 716], ibn Hibbaan [no. 1333], Ahmad [4/179], ibn Abee Shaybah [1/23] and others.
{25} Ibn Abee Shaybah [1/184] and others


CHAPTER TEN : Dry Ablution [Tayammum]

11. Muhammad bin Ismaa`eel narrated to us; `Affaan [bin Muslim bin Abdullaah] narrated to us; Shu`bah [bin al-Hajjaaj al-Azdee] narrated to us; al-Hakam [bin Utaybah bin Nuhaas al-Kindee] narrated to me; from Dhirr [bin Abdullaah bin Zaraarah al-Hamadaanee]; from Abdur-Rahmaan bin Abzee; from his father [Abdur-Rahmaan the servant of Naafi`] that:

He witnessed a man coming to Umar querying that he had been in a state of major impurity and could not find any water. `Ammaar [bin Yaasir said to Umar], "we were on a journey and I became in a state of major impurity and rolled about in the dirt [in order to purify myself]. Then I went to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) and he said, 'indeed it sufficed you to do this' and he struck the earth with his hands, blew off the dust and wiped his face and hands." {26}

Abu Bakr (ibn al-Mundhir) said:

  • One. Both the one one who is in a state of major impurity and minor impurity can perform dry ablution in the case that no water is to be found.
  • Two. The one who is sick and in a state of major impurity can perform dry ablution if he fears that the coldness of the water would harm him were he to bathe in it. This applies regardless of whether he is travelling or not.
  • Three. None of these people have to repeat their prayers if later they find water, regardless of whether they find it within the time of the current prayer or after it.
  • Four. Therefore the one who is allowed to perform dry ablution should perform it at the beginning of the period for the prayer and pray. He does not have to repeat the prayer if he later finds water.
  • Five. The best opinion that has been voiced concerning looking for water is that the seeker look to his right and left, in front of him and behind him and if he finds water or indications to a water source then he should perform ritual ablution otherwise he can perform dry ablution.
  • Six. The one who intends to perform dry ablution should find clean earth and strike both his hands upon it once, then he should raise them and wipe his face and hands.
  • Seven. It is not permissible to perform dry ablution except with clean earth due to his (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) saying, "the earth has been made clean and purifying for me as well as a Mosque." {27}
  • Eight. With one dry ablution he can perform all of the obligatory prayers and other prayers [in the case that water is not found].
  • Nine. It is better and safer if he were to perform dry ablution for each obligatory prayer.
  • Ten. He can perform dry ablution in a short or long journey.
  • Eleven. It is not upon him to buy water through spending more than he can afford.
  • Twelve. If he fears thirst then he should keep the water he has for drinking, perform dry ablution and he does not have to repeat the prayer.
  • Thirteen. The one who does not have any water can have sexual intercourse then perform dry ablution and then pray. This is valid.
  • Fourteen. One should perform dry ablution for optional prayers and the prostrations of the Qur`aan [in the case that no water is found].
  • Fifteen. If one performs dry ablution, enters the prayer and then sees water, he should not leave the prayer, rather he should complete it.
  • Sixteen. It is not permissible to perform dry ablution without intention.
  • Seventeen. Every one who has performed dry ablution must take a ritual bath if he was in a state of major impurity or perform ritual ablution if he was in a state of minor impurity when they find water in order to pray any ensuing prayer.
  • Eighteen. The menstruating women, when she becomes free of her menstrual cycle, and the woman undergoing post-natal bleeding, when she becomes pure, can do all that we have mentioned above.
  • Nineteen. It is permissible for one who has performed dry ablution to lead those who have performed ritual ablution.

NOTES

{26} Bukhaaree [Eng. Trans.], Muslim [Eng. Trans.], Abu Daawood [Eng. Trans.], an-Nasaa`ee [1/169], ibn Maajah [no. 569], al-Bayhaqee [1/209], ibn Khuzaymah [no. 268, 269], ibn Hibbaan [no. 1299], at-Tayaalisee [no. 638], Ahmaad [2/265, 320], Abu Awaanah [1/305] and ibn Abee Shaybah [1/159]
{27} Muslim [Eng. Trans.] and ad-Daarimee [no. 1396]. The hadeeth has also been reported by al-Bukhaaree [Eng. Trans.] with the wording, "the earth has been made purifying for me as well as a Mosque."


CHAPTER ELEVEN : The Description of the Ritual Bath from a State of Major Impurity

12. Abu Bakr narrated to us; Muhammad bin Abdul-Wahhaab narrated to us; Ja`far bin `Awn informed us; Hishaam bin `Urwah informed us; from his father that Aa`ishah (RA) said:

"The Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) commenced by washing his hands, then he performed ritual ablution as he would for the prayer. Then he would take handfuls of water and wet his hair to its roots until he felt that the whole skin of the head had become wet. Then he poured three handfuls of water over his head and bathed." {28}

Abu Bakr (ibn al-Mundhir) said:

  • One. When you wish to bathe then conceal yourself from public view. Maymoonah (RA) said, "I concealed the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) while he was bathing from major impurity." {29}
  • Two. Take the container of water and pour water over your right hand and wash it. Then pour water over your private parts and wash them with your left hand.
  • Three. Strike the earth with your left hand and then wash it. {30}
  • Four. Then perform ritual ablution as you would for the prayer.
  • Five. Then immerse your fingers in the water and pass them through your hair until it is wet to the roots.
  • Six. Then pour water over your head three times making sure it passes over all of your body.
  • Seven. It is sufficient for the one who has a lot of hair to make sure that all of his hair is wet to its roots.
  • Eight. While washing, the water should be poured over the right side before the left.
  • Nine. The woman washes in the same way as the man.
  • Ten. The menstruating woman [after her menses] washes in the same way as the one who has major impurity with the exception that she perfumes herself with [light smelling] musk by rubbing it over the place that had been soiled with blood in compliance with the Sunnah. {31}

NOTES

{28} Bukhaaree [Eng. Trans. 1/166 no. 272], Muslim [Eng. Trans.], Abu Daawood [Eng. Trans.], at-Tirmidhee [no. 104], an-Nasaa`ee [1/134], al-Bayhaqee [1/173], ibn Khuzaymah [no. 242], ibn Hibbaan [no. 1183], Ahmad [6/56, 101], Abu Awaanah [1/296], Maalik [Eng. Trans.], Abdur-Razzaaq [1/260], ibn Abee Shaybah [1/63] and ibn al-Jaarood [no. 99]
{29} Muslim [Eng. Trans.], an-Nasaa`ee [1/200] and al-Bayhaqee [1/197].
{30} Due to the hadeeth reported in Saheeh Bukhaaree [Eng. Trans. 1/161 no. 260] from Maymoonah (RA) that "the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) took a bath from major impurity. He first cleaned his private parts with his hand and then rubbed his hand on the wall (earth) before washing it. Then he performed ritual ablution like that for the prayer and after the bath he washed his feet."
- {Trans.}
{31} Bukhaaree [Eng. Trans. 1/186 no. 311], Muslim [Eng., Trans.], Abu Daawood [Eng. Trans.], an-Nasaa`ee [1/135], ibn Maajah [1/210] and others from Aa`ishah (RA) with the wording "a woman asked the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) about the bath which is taken after completion of the menses. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) told her what to do and said, 'purify yourself with a piece of cloth scented with musk.' The woman asked, 'how should I purify myself?' He said, 'Glory by to Allaah! Purify yourself with it.' I pulled her to myself and said, 'rub the place soiled with blood with it.'"


CHAPTER TWELVE : Mention of Purifying the Clothes and Bodies

13. Muhammad bin Abdullaah narrated to us; Ibn Wahb narrated to us; Yahya bin Abdullaah bin Saalim, Maalik bin Anas and `Amr bin al-Haarith informed me; from Hishaam bin `Urwah; from Faatimah bin al-Mundhir; from Asmaa bint Abu Bakr that she said:

"The Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) was asked about a garment that was stained with the menstrual blood. He replied, 'take hold of the area of the garment, rub it and wash it with water and then pray in it." {32}

Abu Bakr (ibn al-Mundhir) said:

  • One. To wash excrement, urine, madhee, and blood is obligatory from that garment in which one intends to pray in, regardless of whether it is a small or large amount.
  • Two. It is recommended to scrape sperm off the garment, but this is not obligatory as it is considered pure.
  • Three. The garments of the Muslims and polytheists in which one wishes to pray in, belonging to both the young and old, are to be considered clean until one is certain that it has become soiled with an impurity.
  • Four. The sweat of the one who is in a state of major impurity and Christian [for example] is pure.
  • Five. If a person were to pray in an impure garment and find out after he has prayed then he does not have to repeat that prayer, however he should wash it for the ensuing prayers.
  • Six. If the earth [on which he wishes to pray on] contains urine or alcohol then he should pour water over the stained area in compliance to the order of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) wherein he ordered water to be poured over the urine of the Bedouin Arab. When this is done the area become clean.
  • Seven. It is permissible to pray upon any area of clean earth.
  • Eight. It is not permissible to pray upon any area of impure earth unless it is first purified, or the one intending to pray covers it by placing a prayer mat or the likes over it.
  • Nine. It is not permissible to pray in the resting-places of camels but it is permissible to pray in sheepfolds.
  • Ten. The urine of those animals whose meat is lawful to eat is pure. The urine of those animals whose meat is unlawful to eat is impure.

NOTES

{32} Bukhaaree [Eng. Trans. 1/145 no. 227, 1/184 no. 304], Muslim [Eng. Trans.], Abu Daawood [Eng. Trans.], at-Tirmidhee [no. 138], an-Nasaa`ee [1/195], ad-Daarimee [no. 778], ibn Hibbaan [no. 1384], ibn Khuzaymah [no. 275] and al-Baghawee [no. 290]


CHAPTER THIRTEEN : Menstruating Women

14. Muhammad bin Abdul-Wahhaab narrated to us; Muhammad bin Kanaasah informed us; Hishaam narrated to us; from his father; from Aa`ishah (RA) that she said:

"Faatimah bin Hubaysh came to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) and said, 'I undergo menstrual bleeding [but it does not stop] such that I may become pure. Should I leave the prayer?' He said, 'the bleeding is from a blood vessel and is not the menses. So leave the prayer when the real menses begin and when it has finished take a bath and start praying.'" {33}


Abu Bakr (ibn al-Mundhir) said:

  • One. The least period of menstrual bleeding according to many of our companions [the Shaafi`ees] is one day and one night. The most is fifteen days and nights. {34}
  • Two. If a young lady sees her menstrual blood for the first time then she should refrain from prayer [and continue to refrain from it if the bleeding goes on] for fifteen days and nights.
  • Three. If the bleeding exceeds fifteen days and nights [then this is no longer considered to be menstruation] and she should bathe and pray. In this case she should make up those prayers that she missed after the first day and night. {35}
  • Four. The pregnant woman does not undergo menstruation.
  • Five. The menstruating women do not have to make up the prayers they missed while menstruating but they do have to make up the fasts. There is no difference concerning this. {36}
  • Six. Allaah says, "Keep away from women during menstruation." [Al-Baqarah (2): 222] Hence it is unlawful to have sexual intercourse with menstruating women.
  • Seven. If a man does have sexual intercourse with a menstruating woman then he must seek Allaah's forgiveness and there is nothing due upon his wealth by way of expiation. {37}
  • Eight. When the woman has become pure of the menses then her husband should not have sexual intercourse with her until she has bathed.
  • Nine. As for the woman who is undergoing abnormal bleeding then it is permissible for her husband to have sexual intercourse with her. This is because she has the ruling of being pure and enjoined to the prayer, fast, recitation of the Qur`aan and performing tawaaf for Hajj or other than Hajj.
  • Ten. The husband is allowed to kiss [etc.] his menstruating wife but he has to avoid the area of bleeding.
  • Eleven. The maximum period for post-natal bleeding according to our companions is two months. If she becomes pure in a day or less then she should bathe and pray.

NOTES

{33} Bukhaaree [Eng. Trans. 1/190 no. 317], Muslim [Eng. Trans.], Abu Daawood [Eng. Trans.], at-Tirmidhee [no. 125], an-Nasaa`ee [1/122], ibn Maajah [no. 1340], ad-Daarimee [no. 780], al-Bayhaqee [1/323], ibn Hibbaan [no. 1340], Ahmad [6/194], Abu Awaanah [1/319], Maalik [Eng. Trans.], ibn al-Jaarood [no. 112], al-Baghawee [no. 324], and Abdur-Razzaaq [no. 1165].
{34} 'Majmu`' [2/375, 2/401]
{35} This is because in this case the woman is considered to be undergoing abnormal bleeding. It is not known [in the case where the woman is unable to distinguish between the two types of blood] when the menstrual bleeding finished and the abnormal bleeding started. Therefore she builds upon what is certain and she is certain that the least period for menses is one day and one night. Hence she assumes that the remaining days of bleeding were not due to menses and makes up the prayers she missed.
In the case where she can distinguish between the two types of blood then she bathes after the menstrual bleeding has finished.
- {Trans.}
{36} The concensus that menstruating women do not have to make up their missed prayers has been related by ibn Hazm in 'al-Muhalla' [no. 276], ibn Rushd in 'Bidaayatul Mujtahid' [1/56] and an-Nawawee in 'Majmu`' [2/351].
The concensus that mentruating women do have to make up missed fasts has been related by ibn Hazm in 'Maraatib al-Ijmaa`' [pg. 47] and 'al-Muhalla' [no. 737]
{37} This is also a reported opinion of Ahmad. Another of his opinions states that he has to give a half or one deenaar in charity as expiation due to what Abu Daawood [Eng. Trans. 1/66 no. 264] reports from ibn Abbaas (RA) that the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) said about a man who had intercourse with his wife while she was menstruating, "he must give one deenaar or half a deenaar in charity."
A number of the People of Knowledge have declared this hadeeth saheeh. Refer to: 'Talkhees al-Habeer' [1/165], 'Irwaa al-Ghaleel' [1/217] and 'al-Mughnee' [1/335]


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