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The Classical Works
  Aqeedatul-Waasitiyyah - The Text
Author: Shaikh ul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah
Source: Translated by Assas Nimer Busool
Article ID : AQD040003  [43908]  
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19. The Jahmis are the followers of Jahm Ibn Safwan Abu Muhriz, a (mawla) client of Banu Rasib, called at-Tirmidhi by some and as-Samarqandi by others, a Muslim theologian, who attached himself to al-Harith Ibn Suraij, the "man with the black banner", during the rising in Khurasan towards the end of the 'Umayyad period and was therefore put to death in 128 H./745-6 C.E. by Salm Ibn Ahwaz. As a theologian he occupies an independent position in as much as he agreed with the Murji'ah on the one hand in teaching that belief is an affair of the heart, and with the Mu'tazilah in denying the anthropomorphic attributes of God, but on the other hand he was one of the strongest defenders of Jabr. He only allowed that Allah is All-Powerful and the Creator because these are the things which can not be predicated of any created being. He further denied the eternity of Paradise and Hell. His followers called jahmiyah after him, survived down to the fifth century of the Hijrah/eleventh century C.E., around Tirmidh but then adopted the doctrines of the Ash'aris.

20. Qadariyah (Qadaris) is a Muslim sect which believes that man produced his own actions, which meant that they make man (khaliq al-af'al) creator of actions, thus giving Allah a partner in creating.

21. Jabriyah is the name given to those who, in opposition to the Qadariyah, deny the freedom of the will, and on this point make no distinction between man and inanimate nature, in as much as his actions are subordinate to the compulsion (jabr) of God. The most prominent champion of this view is Jahm Ibn Safwan and many other small sects.

22. Murji'ah is the name of one of the early sects of Islam, the extreme opponents of the Khawarij. The latter thought that a Muslim by committing a mortal sin becomes kafir. The Murji'ah, on the other hand, were of the opinion that a Muslim does not lose his faith through sin. This doctrine led them to a far-reaching quietism in politics; according to their doctrine, the Imam who was guilty of mortal sins did not cease to be a Muslim and must be obeyed. The Salah (prayers) performed behind him was valid.

23. Al-Wa'idiyah believe that Allah logically must punish the disobedient as He must reward the obedient, therefore, according to them, if a person committed a major sin and died before repenting, Allah must not forgive him. This doctrine conflicts with the Qur'an and the Sunnah.

24. Al-Haruriyah is a branch of the Khawarij, the earliest of the religious sects of Islam, whose importance lies particularly, from the point of view of the development of dogma, in the formulation of questions relative to the theory of the Caliphate and to justifications by faith or by work.

The Origin Of the Khawarij Movement:

The occasion for the schism was given by the proposal presented to 'Ali by Mu'awiyah during the battle of Siffin (Safar, 37 H./July, 657 C.E.) to settle the differences by referring it to two arbitrators who would pronounce judgment according to the Qur'an, while the majority of 'Ali's army readily adopted this proposal, one group of warriors, mainly of the tribe of Tamim, vigorously protested against the setting up of a human tribunal above the Divine Word. Loudly protesting that judgment belongs to Allah alone" (La hukma illa lil-Lahi), they left the army, and withdrawing to the village of Harura', not far from Kufah, they elected as their chief an obscure soldier 'AbdAllah Ibn Wahb ar-Rasibi. These first dissenters took the name al-Haruriyah or al-Muhakkimah.

25. Al-Mu'tazilah is the name of the great theological school which created the speculative dogmation of Islam. The Mu'tazilis are those who profess the doctrine of i'tizal, i.e., the doctrine of (al-manzilah baina al-manzilatain), or the state intermediate between belief and unbelief, the fundamental doctrine of the school. The name "Mu'tazilah" is derived from a schism which took place in the circle of al-Hasan al-Basfi: after laying down their doctrine of (al-manzilah baina al-manzilatain), Wasil Ibn 'Ata' and 'Amr Ibn 'Ubaid are said to have separated (i'tazala) from al-Hasan's circle to found an independent school. Some modern scholars believe that the Mu'tazilah had a political origin started at the time of 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib, when a group of Muslims stayed neutral in the fight between 'Ali on the one side and Talhah, az-Zubair and 'A'ishah on the other, as the third (neutral) group was described in the historical chronicles as: (i'taaalu) moved away from the fighting.

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