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Concerning Fasting
  The Rulings of Ramadaan
Author: Islamic Society of the University of Essex
Article ID : IBD090003  [32532]  
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Menstruation and post-childbirth bleeding
If the woman starts menstruating or post childbirth bleeding anytime during the daytime of Ramadaan, regardless if it is at the beginning or at the end of the day, then her fast is broken and she has to make it up at another time after the month is finished. If she decides to continue her fast it will not be valid.
The prophet (S) said: "Is it not so that if she starts menstruating she does not pray nor fast? We said: "Yes" He (S) said: "Then that is defect in her Deen (religion)."

Aa'isha (R) was asked: Why does the menstruating woman have to do Qadaa for the fasting that she misses and she does not have to do Qadaa for the Salaat (prayer)?" She answered: "This used to affect us and we used to be commanded to do Qadaa for the fasting and not for the Salaat."

One day has to be made up for each day missed.

Nutritional feeding from other than the mouth
This breaks the fast because it takes the place of eating and drinking. This ruling is derived by Qiyaas (analogy).

One day has to be made up for each day missed.

Intentional sexual intercourse
This is based on the saying of Allah (T):

{...And now you can have intercourse with them...} [Baqarah2:186]

Meaning that during the duration of the fast sexual intercourse is forbidden. Whoever's fast is broken because of sexual intercourse during the daytime of Ramadaan must do Qadaa and Kafaara based on the following Hadeeth

Abu Huraira said, a man came to the Messenger of Allah and said: "O Messenger of Allah I am destroyed."
The Messenger of Allah (T) said: "What destroyed you?"
He said: "I had sexual intercourse during Ramadaan."
He (S) said: "Are you able to free a slave?"
He said: "No."
He (S) said: "Are you able to fast two consecutive months?"
He said: "No."
He (S) said: "Are you able to feed sixty poor people?"
He said: "No."
He (S) said: "Sit!" So he sat, and someone brought a basket with dates. The prophet (S) said: "Give it in charity."
He said: "There is none that is poorer than me."
He (the narrator) said: "Then the Messenger (S) laughed until his molar teeth could be seen and then he said: "Go and feed your family with it." [The Group]


Establishing the night prayer during the nights of Ramadaan
It is established in the Shar'iah that this Salaah (Prayer) was offered in congregation by the Messenger of Allah (S).

Aa'isha said: "The Messenger of Allah (S) went out during the late part of the night and prayed in the masjid and some men prayed with him. The following day the people began to talk about it and then more people prayed (on the following night). Again the following morning the people began to talk about it, and on the third night many more people came out. The Messenger (S) Of Allah (T) came out, and they all prayed with him. On the fourth night the masjid was unable to hold the amount of people that came out, however, the Messenger (S) (did not come out). He (S) came out for the Fajr Salaat instead. After finishing the prayer he turned to the people and declared the Shahadah and said: "Your position was not hidden from me, but I was fearful that it would be made obligatory upon you and then youwould become unable to continue establishing it." [Bukhaaree]

The Messenger (S) of Allah (T) died and the affair relative to the Taraweeh salaah remained thus (i.e. it is recomended and it can be prayed in congregation). This is because the fear for it to become compulsory was removed after his (S) death. The rightly guided Caliph Umar Ibn al-Khattaab revived this Sunnah of having the prayer of Taraweeh in congregation.

Abd Ar-Rahman said: "I went out with 'Umar (R) to the masjid during one night of Ramadaan and the people were divided. You could see one person praying by himself while another would bepraying and others would pray with him. 'Umar then said: "I see that if I bring together these people and make them all one congregation led by one person that would be better. He then decided to do this: so he gathered them and made Ubay Ibn Ka'b as their Imaam. Then I went out with him on another night and the people were praying behind their Imaam. Umar said: " What a good thing this is..". [Bukhaaree]

The Number of Raka'at for the Taraweeh Salaat
There is difference among the scholars about the number of raka'at to be established for the Night Prayer of Ramadaan. However, the correct amount is established by what the Messenger (S) did i.e. eight raka'at and three raka'at for the Witr prayer.

Aa'isha said "Allah's Messenger (S) never exceeded eleven raka'at in Ramadaan or during other months (for the night prayer). [Bukhaaree].

     Page 13 of 20
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