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Yusuf al-Qaradawi
  Readings in Qaradawism : Part 2 : Arts and Entertainment
Source: ar-Radd alal-Qaradawi
Article ID : NDV160002  [23029]  
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The view held by the companions was generally adhered to by the taabieen and their followers, the four imams and the great majority of dependable Islamic scholars up to the present time.From among the tabieen and their followers, there are such authorities as Mujaahid, Ikrimah, An-Nakhai and Al-Hassan Al-Basri.(107)

IMAM ABU HANEEFAH

Imam Abu Haneefah (108) has perhaps the harshest view of the four famous Imams of jurisprudence. His school of thought is the strictest, for he detested singing and considered it sinful. As for his disciples, they have explicitly confirmed the prohibition of listening to all musical amusements and pastimes, including wind instruments (mazaameer) (109) all types of tambourines, hand drums(dufoof) (110) and even the striking of sticks9al-qadeeb).They have asserted that such actions constitute disobedience to Allah and that the performer of such action is sinful, therefore necessitating rejection of his testimony (111). They have further stated that it is incumbent upon the Muslim to struggle to avoid listening to such things, even if he were passing by or stationed near them (without any wilful intention). Abu Haneefah's closest disciple, Abu Yoosuf, stated that if the sound of musical instruments (maazif) and amusements (malaahi) were heard coming from a house, the house could be entered without permission of its owners(112). The justification for this is that the command regarding the prohibition abominable things (munkaaraat) is mandatory, and cannot be established if such entering rests upon the permission of the residents of the premises.This is the madhhab (position) of the rest of the Kufic scholars as well, such as Ibraheem An-Nakhai, Ash-Shabi Hammad and Ath-Thowri. They do not differ on this issue. The same can be said of the general body of jurisprudents of Al-Basrah.(114).

IMAAM MAALIK

It is related by Ibnul-Jowzi that Ishaaq bin Eesaa At-Tabaa asked Imaam Maalik bin Anas, (115), the leading jurisprudent of Madeenah, about the view of the people of madeenah regarding singing (ghinaa).He replied, "In fact, that is done by the sinful ones." Abut-teeb At-Tabari said, "As for Maalik bin Anas, he truly did prohibit singing and listening to it." He further related that Maalik said, "If one purchased a slave-girl (116) and found her to be a professional singer, he could return her to the original owner for reimbursement on the claim of having found fault in the merchandise."(117) The ruling of prohibition (tahreem) is generally agreed upon by the scholars of Madeenah. The Maaliki jurisprudent and commentator, Al-Qurtubi , reports Ibn Khuwayz Mandaad as saying that Imam Maalik had learned singing and music as a small boy until his mother encouraged him to leave it for a study of the religous sciences. He did, and his view became that such things were prohibited.(118)Al-Qurtubi confirmed Maaliks view by saying that the only exception to this general ruling was the type of innocent songs such as those sung to placate the camels during travel, or during hard labour or boredom or during times of festivity and joy, such as the Eed days and weddings-the latter to the accompaniment of a simple daff (hand drum). Al-Qurtubi then said, "As for that which is done in our day, by way of the (blameworthy) innovations (bidah) of the Sufi mystics in their addition to hearing songs to the accompaniment of melodious instruments such as flutes, string instruments such as flutes, string instruments etc such is haraam(forbidden)(119).

IMAAM SHAFI’EE

In the book, Aadaabul Qadaa, As-Shafiee is reported as saying, "Verily, song is loathsome (makrooh); it resembles the false and vain thing (al-baatil). The one who partakes of it frequently is an incompetent fool whose testimony is to be rejected."(121) His closest and most knowledgeable disciples clearly stipulate that his position on this issue is that of prohibition (tahreem)and they rebuke those who attribute its legality to him(122) This is confirmed by the later Shafiite scholar, Ibn Hajar Al-Haythami. He related that one of the Ash-Shaafiites disciples, Al-Haarith Al-Muhaasibi (d.243 H) said, "Song is haraam, just as the carcass (maytah)." (123). Further more, the statement that singing is haraam is found in the treatise, Ash-Sharh Al-Kabeer, by the authoritative Shaffiite Scholar, Ar-Raafiee(d.623 H).This is further corroborated by the accomplished Shaaffi’ite jurisprudent, Imam An-Nawawi(d.676 H)in his Rowdah)(124). Such is the correct view of the dependable scholars of the Shaffi’ite madhab. However, due to limited knowledge and personal fancy and desire, a few of their later day scholars disagree with this view.(125) 


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