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Al-Qadaa wal-Qadr (Divine Ordainment and Predetermination)
  The Four Levels of the Belief in al-Qadr
Author: Dr. Saleh as-Saleh
Article ID : AQD090001  [97421]  
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"As soon as Allah created the pen, he commanded it saying: write. It said: "what should I write my Lord?" Allah said: "Write the record of all things to happen till the establishment of the hour" Oh my son I have heard Allah's Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) saying: "He who dies believing other than this is not from me"(i.e. is not upon the prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) belief) (Abu Dawud)

B. The Writing Following The Creation of Aadam

Umar ibn Al-khattab was asked about the following aayah:

"And remember when your Lord brought forth the children of Aadam from their loins their seed (or from aadams loins ,his offspring) and made them bear witness as to themselves saying "Am I not your Lord? They said : "Yes". We testify lest you say on the day of resurrection, verily we were unaware of this"

and he said, "When Allah's Messenger was asked about it, I heard him say: "I Allah created Aadam and then he passed his right hand and brought forth from it his offspring saying "I have created these for paradise and they will do the deeds of the people of Jannah (those that will go to paradise), he then passed his hand over his back and brought forth from it his offspring saying "I have created these for the Hell and they will do the deeds of the people of the hellfire". Thereupon a man asked what is the use of doing any good? Allah's Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) said: "Verily when Allah creates a slave for paradise he uses him in doing the deeds of the people of paradise until he dies doing them upon which he will enter paradise but when he creates a slave for the hellfire, he uses him in doing the deeds of those who will enter hell, until he dies upon doing one of their actions upon which he will enter helr'.(Imaam Ahmad, Abu Dawood & others)

Shaikh Al-Albaani commented that many people may understand that these Hadith indicate that man has no choice with respect to his deeds while there are many who think that being from the people from Paradise or the people of Hell is an arbitrary matter, or just a sheer luck. It is known that Allah is perfect in His Names and Attributes that

"there is nothing like Him" (42:11)

it is according to His Knowledge Wisdom and Justice and that he the exalted chose people for Paradise or for Hell he knew that those chosen for Paradise will obey him when they are commanded to do so. An those for Hell will disobey Allah decisions therefore it is in accordance with what would come of them. Belief in eemaan that necessitates the admittance into paradise or disbelief that necessitates punishment in Hell, both faith and disbelief are a matter of choice for mankind. Allah the exalted does not force anyone to adopt other choice:

"Then whosoever wills let him believe and whosoever wills let him disbelieve" (18:29).

Because His swt choice is All Just and All Wise. Therefore Allah cannot be questioned about it. (Al Albaani in silsilatul Ahadeeth As Saheehah)

C. The Taqdeer Allah - 'Umari: Covering the persons life span.

The persons livelihood, life term, deeds and his status in the Hereafter (wretched or blessed) are written while in the mothers womb at an early stage of his development. This is confirmed in the hadeeth related by Abdullah ibn Masood who said, "Allahs Messengers saw said: "The creation of everyone of you is collected for the first forty days in his mothers womb in the form of a nutfah after which it turns into an alaqah for an equal period. Then it becomes a mudgha (a lump of flesh) for a similar period and then Allah sends an angel with four words recording the persons provision, his life term, his deeds and whether he will be wretched or the blessed (in the hereafter). Then he breaths the soul into him. By Allah besides whom there is no true God, the one amongst you will do the deeds of the people of Paradise till there is only the distance of a cubit between him and Paradise but then the writings precedes and so he will do the deeds of the people of the fire, and thus enters it; and one of you will do the deeds of the people of the fire until there remains a cubit between him and Hell that the writings precedes and he will do the deeds of the people of Paradise, and thus enters it

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