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A Summary of Hamawiyyah
  Creed of Hamawiyyah - Chapter 3 : The Way of Ahl us-Sunnah Concerning Allaah's Attributes
Author: Shaikh ul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah
Source: Aqidat ul-Hamawiyyah
Article ID : AQD070003  [13569]  
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Ahl-us-Sunnah wal Jamaa'ah are those who gather upon adherence to the Prophet's Sunnah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) - outwardly and inwardly; in speech, action and belief.

Their way with respect to Allaah's Names and Attributes is:

3.1 CONCERNING AFFIRMATION

They affirm that which Allaah has affirmed for Himself in His Book or via His Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) without Tahreef, Ta'teel, Takyeef or Tamtheel.

3.2 CONCERNING DENIAL

They deny that which Allaah has denied for Himself in His Book or via His Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) .

At the same time they affirm the opposite in the most perfect sense.

3.3 CONCERNING WHERE AFFIRMATION OR DENIAL IS NOT SPECIFICALLY MENTIONED

e.g. al-Jism (body), al-Hayyiz (realm), al-Jihah (direction).

Then their way is:

To halt at the words and neither affirm or deny them.

Then to look into the meaning of those words
- if the meaning is false then they deny this meaning
- if the meaning is correct and not prohibited for Allaah then they accept this meaning.

3.4 THIS WAY (3.1-3.3) IS ESTABLISHED VIA TWO WAYS:

- The Mind
- The Revelation

3.4.1 THE MIND

- It's clear to the mind, that the details of what is obligatory, permitted or prohibited for Allaah can not be reached by the mind.

- Hence one must follow the Revelation - affirming or denying what it affirms or denies, and staying silent where it is silent.

3.4.2 THE REVELATION

3.4.2.1 (7):180 - Proof of Affirmation without Tahreef or Ta'teel for both of these are from Ilhaad.

3.4.2.2 (42):111 - Proof to reject Tamtheel.

3.4.2.3 (17):36 - Proof to reject Takyeef and to obligate us to halt at those terms where affirmation or denial is not mentioned.

3.5 ATTRIBUTES WHICH ARE AFFIRMED OR DENIED FOR ALLAAH

3.5.1 THOSE WHICH ARE AFFIRMED FOR HIM

These are Attributes of Perfection in the most perfect sense without there being any aspect of deficiency.

3.5.2 THOSE WHICH ARE DENIED FOR HIM

- Are attributes of deficiency which contradict perfection.
- Hence they are prohibited for Him.

3.5.2.1 And when Denying These, We Must Affirm the Opposite of it in the Most Perfect Sense because only denying it may be due to a deficiency.

e.g. The poetry the Shaykh quotes.
e.g. to say "The wall does not oppress" - this is not a praise of the wall because it can't oppress!

Examples concerning Allaah:

3.5.2.1.1 Allaah has denied Dhulm - Oppression from Himself, so we deny it from Him, and also affirm its opposite - Justice [al 'Adl] - in the most perfect sense.
 
3.5.2.1.2 Allaah has denied Lughoob - Fatigue from Himself, so we deny it from Him, and also affirm its opposite - Power [al Qoowah] - in the most perfect sense.

3.6 DEFINITIONS

3.6.1 AT-TAHREEF

3.6.1.1 In the Language - to change or alter.

3.6.1.2 Technically here - to change the texts in wording or meaning. This is of 3 kinds.

3.6.1.2.1 Altering the words so the meaning changes: e.g. What some innovators do to the Saying of Allaah in (4):164 - changing the Dammah on the last letter of "Allaah" with a Fathah, in order to change the meaning to "Moosaa spoke to Allaah..."
 
3.6.1.2.2 Altering the words with no change of meaning: e.g. changing the Dammah on the last letter of "al Hamd" in (1):2, to a Fathah. This usually occurs out of ignorance.
 
3.6.1.2.3 Altering the Meaning: taking the meaning of the words away from their most apparent meaning without any proof. e.g. Saying Allaah's Two Hands means "His Power" or "His Blessing".

3.6.2 AL-TA'TEEL

3.6.2.1 In the Language - to discharge and to make empty.

3.6.2.2 Technically here - to reject or deny all or some of that which is obligatory for Allaah regarding His Names and Attributes. This is of 2 types.

3.6.2.2.1 Complete Ta'teel - like the Jahmeeyah who deny the Attributes and some of them deny the Names.
 
3.6.2.2.2 Partial Ta'teel - like the Ash'areeyah who deny some of the Attributes.
- The first of this Ummah to do this was Ja'd ibn Dirham.

3.6.3 AT-TAKYEEF

- to try to describe "how" an Attribute is. e.g. To say: How Allaah's Hand is, is like this and that, or How His Descending is, is like this and that.

- Takyeef differs to Tamtheel and Tashbeeh in two ways:

3.6.3.1 Takyeef is to Relate How Something is, with Restriction or Not by way of resembling. While Tamtheel and Tashbeeh indicate how something is in a restricted sense, by way of a likeness or resemblance respectively.


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