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Asmaa was-Sifaat
  General Principles Regarding Allaah's Attributes
Author: Alawee ibn `Abdil-Qaadir as-Saqqaaf
Source: Sifaatullaah `Azza wa Jalla al-Waaridah fil-Kitaab was-Sunnah (trans. by Dawud Burbank)
Article ID : AQD030010  [34976]  
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And Allaah does what He wills."[12] [13]

The Eleventh Principle
"The proof from the Book and Sunnah for the establishment of an attribute is either:
(i) by clearly stating it,
(ii) or by its being incorporated by the name,
(iii) or by clear statement of an action or a description proving it."[14]

Examples of the first are Mercy, Might, Power, His Face, His Hands and His Fingers etc.
Examples of the second are al-Baseer (The Seeing) which incorporates the attribute of sight, and as-Samee' (The Hearing) which incorporates the attribute of hearing, and so on.
Examples of the third are (His Saying):

Ar-Rahmaan rose over the Throne.[15]

Which proves His having ascended, and (another example is His saying):

We shall exact retribution from the Mujrimoon.[16]

Which proves that He exacts retribution, and so on.

The Twelfth Principle
"One may seek refuge with Allaah, the Might and Magnificent's, attributes and swear an oath by them."[17]

From this is his, sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallaam, saying, "I seek refuge of Your Pleasure from Your Wrath, and from Your granting safety from Your punishment .." reported by Muslim (no. 486), and therefore al-Bukhaaree named a chapter heading in the Book of Oaths and Vows, "Chapter: Swearing an Oath by the Might of Allaah and His Attributes and His Words."

The Thirteenth Principle
"Speech concerning the attributes is like speech about His Self."[18]

Since just as His Self is real and does not resemble that of other than Him, then it is characterised by real attributes which also do not resemble the attributes of others, and just as affirming His Self is an affirmation of existence but not of 'how'-then the same is true of the attributes.

The Fourteenth Principle
"Speech concerning some of the Attributes is like speech about the rest of them."[19]

So whoever affirms the attributes of Allaah like Hearing, Seeing and Will, must therefore affirms Allaah's Loving, being Pleased, His Anger and His Hating. Shikhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah said, "And whoever differentiates between one attribute and another, despite their being the same with regard to reasons for their being literal or metaphorical-then he is contradicting himself, erroneous in his position, resembling those who believed in a part of the Book and disbelieved in other parts."

The Fifteenth Principle
"Whatever is attributed to Allaah and is not something separate from Him, then it is an attribute of His and not something created, and everything that is attributed to Him and is something separate from Him, then it is something created. So not everything which is attributed to Allaah is necessarily an attribute of His."[20]

Examples of the first are: Allaah's Hearing, Allaah's Seeing, His being Pleased and His Wrath.
Examples of the second are: The House of Allaah, the She-Camel of Allaah.

The Sixteenth Principle
"The attributes of Allaah, the Mighty and Magnificent, and all other matters of 'aqeedah are established by that which is established from Allaah's Messenger, sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallaam, even if it is a single hadeeth, even if it is aahaad."[21]

The Seventeeth Principle
"The attributes of Allaah, the Mighty and Magnificent, which are established in the Book and the Sunnah, are known and are explained literally-never metaphorically or figuratively. But as for ;how' they are, then that is unknown."[22] [23]

The Eighteenth Principle
"Whatever occurs in the Book or the Sunnah, then it is binding upon every Believer to hold what it entails as his saying and to believe in it, even is he does not understand its meaning."[24]

The Nineteenth Principle
"The domain of reports[25] is wider than that of the attributes, and so things related about Him are not necessarily dependant solely upon text, such as 'The Pre-Existing,' that He is a 'thing,' that He 'exists.'"[26]

The Twentieth Principle
"No analogy is made regarding the attributes of Allaah, the Mighty and Magnificent."[27]

So no analogy is made between His liberality (sakhaa') and His generosity (jood). Nor between His Strength (Jalad) and His Might (Qawwah). Nor His Capability (isti'aanah) and His Power (Qudrah). Nor His Compassion (riqqah) and His Mercy (rahmah) and (ra'fah). Nor His being Aware and His Knowing and so on. Since with regard to the attributes of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, we may not go beyond the principle of halting until a text is found, as has been seen in the third principle.


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