means "submission" [al Inqiyaad]
26.1.2 IN THE SHAREE'AH
it means "the surrendering of the slave, to Allaah, both outwardly and inwardly by carrying out its commandments and avoiding its prohibitions." Hence it comprises the whole Religion. See (5):3; (3):85.
means "affirmation" [at-Tasdeeq]. See (12):17.
26.2.2 IN THE SHAREE'AH
It means "the affirmation of the heart that necessitates speech and action, i.e. belief of the heart, speech of the tongue, and action of the heart and limbs."
See hadeeth: "Eemaan is that you believe in Allaah, His Angels,...", and hadeeth: "Eemaan consists of seventy odd branches...".
Hence Eemaan comprises the whole Religion, and hence is not different from Islaam, in this context.
26.3 ISLAAM & EEMAAN.
When the two terms are found together then Eemaan is taken to mean the inward submission [affirmation and action of the heart] - which will only eminate from a believer [Mu-min], while Islaam is taken to mean the outward submission [speech of the tongue and action of the limbs] - which eminates from someone who's complete or weak in Eemaan, or even void of it [e.g. a hypocrite].
See (49):14; (8):2-4
Hence the meaning of Eemaan is superior for every Mu-min is a Muslim, but the reverse is not the case.
26.4 THE INCREASE & DECREASE OF EEMAAN.
Ahl-us-Sunnah are agreed that Eemaan increase and decreases. There are many narrations from the Salaf concerning this.
See (48):4 & many others, and hadeeth: "I have not seen anyone more defecient in intellect and religion..." and others.
Two sects have differed from this:
26.4.1 THE EXTREME MUJI-AH
who believe that Eemaan is affirmation of the heart only and this affirmation does not differ. So to them, the Faasiq and the just honest man are the same in terms of Eemaan.
26.4.2 THE WA'EEDEEYAH
from the Mu'tazilah and Khawaarij, who expel any one who has done a major sin from having any Eemaan. So they say Eemaan is either completely there or not, and has no levels.
26.4.3 THE TEXTS AND THE INTELLECT REFUTE BOTH OF
184.108.40.206 Refuting the Murji-ah.
(1) Saying Eemaan is only the affirmation of the heart contradicts the Book and the Sunnah, for they show that speech and action are also included.
(2) Saying affirmation of the heart does not differ among the people condradicts all sense, for we all know that affirmation is based on knowledge and that the people differ in the amount and quality of knowledge they have, and so the certainty people have as a result of their knowledge must also differ.
(3) Even an individual feels that with different times and situations he strength of certainly changes.
(4) How can any mind accept that the evil sinning Muslim and the obedient pious worshipping Muslim are the same in Eemaan?
220.127.116.11 Refuting the Wa'eedeeyah.
(1) Saying that a person is expelled from having Eemaan due to doing a major sin, contradicts the Book and the Sunnah.
(2) And concerning their belief that no levels of Eemaan exist between having it completely and not having it at all, then this is refuted by points (2) & (4) of 18.104.22.168.
26.4.4 THINGS THAT INCREASE EEMAAN.
22.214.171.124 Knowing Allaah's Names &
126.96.36.199 Contemplating over the Aayaat of Allaah that
relate to His Decree and His Laws.
188.8.131.52 Doing Acts of Obedience - with Eemaan
increasing according to the sincerity and correctness of the action done, the
type of deed done [e.g. if obligatory or recommended], and the amount of deed
184.108.40.206 Leaving a Sin Due to Fear of Allaah - with
Eemaan increasing according to the strength of the temptation being
26.4.5 THINGS THAT DECREASE EEMAAN.
220.127.116.11 Being Ignorant of Allaah's Names &
18.104.22.168 Disregarding & Turning Away From the
Aayaat of Allaah that relate to His Decree and Laws.
22.214.171.124 Doing Sins
with Eemaan decreasing according to the type of evil [e.g. if major or not, or if Kufr or Shirk], the amount of sin done, the lack of regret & importance when doing the sin, and according to the lack of temptations calling to the sin [e.g. refer to hadeeth: "Allaah will not speak to or look at or purify three on the Day of Ressurection..."].
126.96.36.199 Leaving off Acts of Obedience
with Eemaan decreasing according to how certain one is that the deed is part of obedience. And one could be punished for this [i.e. where an obligatory act is not done with no excuse from the Sharee'ah], or not punished [i.e. where one has a physical or Sharee'ah proof for not doing the act - e.g. a woman who misses the Salaah when in her periods, or anyone who does not pray Salaat-ud-Duhaa].
26.5 AL ISTITHNAA - TO SAY "I AM A BELIEVER
[MU-MIN] IF ALLAAH HAS WILLED".
The people have three different rulings concerning this:
26.5.1 THAT AL ISTITHNAA IS PROHIBITED.
This is what the Muji-ah, Jahmeeyah and others say. The source for this is explained in 25.4.
26.5.2 THAT AL ISTITHNAA IS OBLIGATORY.
188.8.131.52 Some explain this by saying that Eemaan is
what one dies upon, and no one knows this except Allaah, so al Istithnaa is
obligatory. This false reason is given by the Kullaabeeyah and others, but it's
not known that the Salaf used this reason.
184.108.40.206 Others explain this by saying that complete
Eemaan comprises of acting upon all the ordered deeds and abondoning every
prohibited deed, and no one can be certain of this. And if some was certain of
this he'd be basically claiming to be a person of Paradise - and that is not
correct. And some of the Salaf did give this as a reason for making al Istithnaa
26.5.3 THAT DETAIL IS FIRST NEEDED.
220.127.116.11 If the Phrase is Said Due to Having Doubt in
the Very Presence of the Basis of Eemaan, then this prohibited, and indeed is
Kufr, for Eemaan is something to be certain about.
18.104.22.168 If the Phrase is Said from Fear that One's
Heart is Not Pure and that one's testification has not reached the reality of
complete Eemaan in terms of speech, action and beleief, then this is correct and
22.214.171.124 If the Phrase is Said to Seek Blessings by
Mentioning Allaah's Will and that it's a way of entertaining hope in being a
Mu-min and that it's a way of saying that whatever exists of Eemaan is dependant
on Allaah's Will, then this is permitted.
126.96.36.199 And Connecting Allaah's Will is this Way is
Not Wrong - it does not contradict the certainty of what one is hoping for -