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Targheeb and Tarheeb
  Al-Wasiyyat us-Sughraa (The Concise Legacy)
Author: Shaikh ul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah
Article ID : TZK050004  [23890]  
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Next, after the Messenger () had covered Allah's right in the first two clauses, i.e. to act righteously and to rectify any harm done, he said, "... and behave well towards the people", thus turning to the right of one's fellow worshippers.

The essence of being good-natured to people is that: he who cuts off relations with you, that you keep an association with him, giving him greetings, respecting him, supplicating for him, asking Allah to forgive him, speaking of him in good terms and visiting him; he who deprives you of knowledge, benefit and wealth, you give them in return; and he who does an injustice to you regarding blood, wealth or honour, you forgive him. Some of these actions are obligatory and others are recommended.

As for the "great character" which Allah described Muhammad ()'s way, it is no other than the complete Deen, comprising of everything that Allah commanded him with, as explained by Mujaahid and other knowledgeable commentators; it is no other than the implementation of the Qur'aan, as 'Aa'isha RadiAllahu 'Anhaa said, "His character was the Qur'aan", and the reality of it is an eagerness to put into practice those things that Allah loves, with purity of soul and openness of heart.

Tafseer of the word 'Taqwaa'

All of the above ideas do emanate from the Wasiyyah of Allah mentioned at the beginning, and this should be understood as such that the word 'Taqwaa' is very comprehensive, covering the fulfilment of all of Allah's orders, whether they are ones of obligation or recommendation, and also the refraining from all that Allah has forbidden, whether it is totally prohibited or strongly discouraged; hence, it includes both the right of Allah and the right of his slaves. However, wherever 'taqwaa' specifically refers to fear of the consequent punishment refraining one from indulging in the prohibited, it is clear from the context; an example of this is in the hadeeth of Mu`aadh (under discussion), and similar is the hadeeth of Abu Hurairah which Tirmidhi has narrated and declared to be saheeh,

The Messenger of Allah () was asked about that which mostly earns people entry to Paradise; he replied, "Taqwaa and goodness of character." He was also asked about that which mostly earns people entry into the Fire; he replied, "The mouth and the private parts."

In a narration of a saheeh hadeeth from 'Abdullaah bin `Umar, the Messenger said,

"The most complete of the believers in eemaan is he who is the best of them in character."

Hence, the Prophet told us that perfection of Eemaan lies in completeness of one's goodness of character; it is known that all of Eemaan is Taqwaa. However, this is not the place for a detailed discussion of the fundamentals and branches of Taqwaa, for that would cover the Deen in its entirety.


The origin and root of all good is Ikhlaas (pure sincerity), i.e. that the slave directs all worship and seeking of assistance purely towards his Lord, as in Allah's statements:

You alone we worship and Your aid alone we seek.


... then worship Him, and put your trust in Him ...


... in him I trust, and unto Him I turn.


... then seek sustenance from Allah, and serve Him, and be grateful to Him.

This is done in such a way that the slave terminates his heart's connection with the created, whether with regard to benefiting from them or acting for their sake, but instead preoccupies himself with his Exalted Creator, the means of attaining which is to supplicate Him for everything required out of poverty, necessity or fear, etc., to carry out every beloved action for the sake of His good pleasure. If someone were to implant this type of Ikhlaas firmly and thoroughly, it would not be possible for him to be affected by any punishable trait.

After the obligatory acts the best action is Dhikr Allah (Remembrance)

As for the next question regarding the best action after the obligatory duties, an answer which is totally comprehensive and detailed for everyone is not possible since it would vary according to each person's differing capabilities and opportunities. However, what is agreed upon by all those who have knowledge of Allah and His commands, is that in general, the best thing with which a slave can occupy himself is the Dhikr (Remembrance) of Allah. In support of this is the hadeeth from Abu Huraira radiAllahu 'anhu which Muslim narrates:

"The loners (mufarridoon) have taken the lead." The Companions asked, "O Messenger of Allah! Who are the loners ?" He replied, "Those men and women who remember Allah in abundance."

Similar is narrated by Abu ad-Dardaa' radiAllahu 'anhu in a report of Abu Daawood:

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